Evolt 360 Metrics Explained & How to Aid Recovery
The Evolt 360 provides insight into what your or your client’s body is really made up of, but what do these metrics all mean and how can this information be used to aid recovery? Chris Reader MS, NSCA-CSCS, Evolt’s very own Performance and Education Specialist explains all.
Total Body Water: Water is essential to your body’s process and function. The brain and heart are 73% water, Lungs are 83% water, and the bones in the body are 31% water ( H. Shimamoto, S Koyima, J. Physiology Anthropology Applied Human Sci. 2000). Most of us have heard “the human body is 60% water” since our time in grade school….because it’s true. Body water will decline as we age due to a variety of natural physiological processes. By the age of 65, muscle mass in humans drops approximately 25-30%. This is due to a combination of a decrease in muscle fiber diameter (drops of 20-30%) and decrease in muscle fiber number (drops of 25%). Muscle atrophy can begin in the 3rd decade of life and over the course life drop by 48% without resistance training. The maintenance of muscle mass is extremely important in relation to maintaining normal levels of water considered muscle can be composed of 79% water. Loss of muscle can directly affect total body water.
The normal range for an adult woman can range from 45%-60%, with males being slightly higher (50-65%) due to larger amounts of muscle tissue, bigger organs, and more hemoglobin and in extension blood (predominantly water).
How do I find my percent water on an Evolt 360 scan?
Total body water/Total weight = percentage of water
Based on where this person’s percentage is, coaches can dive into their client training/recovery/nutrition to see why a client may be less hydrated.
- Always Look at ratio/percent of Intracellular Fluid (ICF) to Extracellular Fluid (ECF) to gauge more about water in the body. The ICF lies within cells and is the principal component of the cytosol. The ICF makes up about 60-65 percent of the total water in the human body, and in an average-size adult male, the ICF accounts for about 25 liters (seven gallons) of fluid. This fluid volume tends to be very stable, because the amount of water in living cells is closely regulated. If the amount of water inside a cell falls to a value that is too low, the cytosol becomes too concentrated with solutes to carry on normal cellular activities; if too much water enters a cell, the cell may burst and this will result in cell death.
- The ECF accounts for the other one-third of the body’s water content. Approximately 20 percent of the ECF is found in plasma. The other third of that is found in the interstitial fluid.
- If you have more muscle tissue expect to hold more water.
Protein: So, when you get that protein content number, I usually start with explaining to clients that nitrogen makes up anywhere from 16%-32% of the structural weight of amino acids, and contribute directly to formation of nucleic acid- all major components of protein synthesis and in extension building of muscle tissue. Consuming a diet rich in protein is the number one way of increasing nitrogen content and achieving a positive nitrogen balance which is needed during a phase of caloric deficits to maintain lean mass or a caloric surplus if muscle gain is the goal.
So, if they are scanning in an ideal state (rested, hydrated, relaxed, and recovered from their previous training), and following nutritional advice on protein recommendations this measurement should be “High”, classically those clients that under eat, struggle with recovery, or are plant based this measurement will be lower. This number essentially shows how much amino acid is being stored in the muscle cells at the time of the scan. More amino acids typically indicate a higher chance of protein synthesis.
Mineral: Phosphate is one of the most abundant minerals in the body. The current known regulators of phosphate homeostasis include a variety of hormones (parathyroid hormone and calictrol) which can both attribute directly to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 23. Maintenance of phosphate levels as we age is important for many biological process, including energy metabolism, cell signaling, regulation of protein synthesis, skeletal development and bone integrity. The presence of adequate amounts of phosphate is critical for apoptosis of mature chondrocytes. Without the appropriate amount of phosphate available in the body, osteomalachia can form (links to calcitrol secretion and vitamin D). When this goes addressed bone mineral density issues may form (osteopenia and osteoporosis).
When the Evolt calculates phosphorus content, it is looking at phosphorus in the body as a whole. There is a descent of inorganic phosphate in the blood that is used in the “mineral” content number. It’s tricky because when people are diagnosed with bone mineral disease the medication (if they are taking it) is meant to affect calcitriol, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D secretion, all of which can alter phosphorus levels in the body. It is also common to see those with bone mineral disease diagnoses (osteomalachia, osteopenia, and osteoporosis) to have high phosphorus levels as it can build up in your body and bind to calcium. This can cause calcium levels to decrease, which can weaken bones.
Goretti Penido, M., & Alon, U. S. (2012). Phosphate homeostasis and its role in bone health. Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany), 27(11), 2039–2048.
Marks, J., Debnam, E. S., & Unwin, R. J. (2010). Phosphate homeostasis and the renal-gastrointestinal axis. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, 299(2), F285-F296.
Miller, A. J., Fan, X., Shen, Q., & Smith, S. J. (2008). Amino acids and nitrate as signals for the regulation of nitrogen acquisition. Journal of experimental botany, 59(1), 111-119.
Miller, E. L. (1973). Evaluation of foods as sources of nitrogen and amino acids. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 32(2), 79-84.
Ramon, I., Kleynen, P., Body, J. J., & Karmali, R. (2010). Fibroblast growth factor 23 and its role in phosphate homeostasis. European journal of endocrinology, 162(1), 1.
Shimamoto, H., & Komiya, S. (2000). The turnover of body water as an indicator of health. Journal of physiological anthropology and applied human science, 19(5), 207-212.