Whilst not always possible, the recommended time to scan would be under the following conditions –
BIA uses a multi frequency methodto measure the resistance of the current flowing through tissue. DEXA is a dual energy x-ray that measures density of tissue and is the gold standard of Bone Density measurements in medicine.
DEXA provides a measure of body composition using dual energy x-ray whereas BIA incorporates an alternating multi frequency electrical current as a mode of analysis, therefore, variation between a BIA and DEXA is anticipated. Additional factors that will contribute to this variation may include –
The take home message for any body composition measurement is to use the exact same device at the same time of day and with the same food contents, hydration status, the same supplements and medications as well as in an untrained state. Consistency is key for repeatability of results.
Skinfold measurements are a measurement of subcutaneous fat only and will never reflect the Total Body Fat measurement on the BIA scan, which also includes visceral fat as well as subcutaneous fat.
Skinfold measurements are subject to a very high degree of inaccuracy and rely on a skilled individual to take the measurements who is qualified in anthropometry. Unless you can anticipate the exact same skinfold pinch every time, the consistency in readings is often unreliable.
Of course, skinfold measurements are beneficial for physique competitors who use skilled coaches to measure a subcutaneous metric, but, this is only fat tissue under the skin.
It is not recommended to compare scan results between different brands of BIA devices.
Some brands of BIA may incorporate default algorithms with pre-set age, height or gender which will provide an incorrect measure of body composition as referenced in published research, including the work of Aragon et al (2017)and Meleleoet al (2017), the accuracy of BIA is reliant based on 5 variables, namely factors which are (i) Gender, (ii) Age, (iii) Height, (iv) Weight & (v) Impedance Value. As forms of BIA analysis are consistent with other types of body composition measurement devices such as DEXA and Bod Pod, whereby the accuracy of the algorithm relies on population statistics. Irrespective of the method of body composition, variation between brands of equipment is likely to occur, for example, undertaking a scan on two different brands of DEXA will be expected to produce variation in results..
We recommend that you use the Evolt 360 Scan as a baseline measurement and keep using the Evolt 360 scan to measure progression in a standardized state.
To ensure consistency of progressive measurements that are consistent with your training and nutrition goals, we recommend scanning every 4-6 weeks. You should expect to see a result in 4 weeks if you are following the right training and nutrition protocols.
There are various reasons this scenario can occur depending on nutritional Intake, training regimes and lifestyle.
Firstly, you should check whether your nutrition has been sufficient to meet your calorie deficit requirements.
It is not uncommon for people to severely reduce calories and substantially increase cardiovascular training in an effort to see significant and quick weight loss. Severe calorie reductions may result in a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and increase in body fat if the training demands are too high, which will be reflected In the scan result.
This scenario of high training volume can be common in people who commence HIIT style training with severe calorie restriction.
We recommend checking your macronutrient requirements using MyMacros on the Evolt Active App and testing with at least 2 weeks full adherence.
As previously mentioned, it isimportant that your first and follow up scan is completed under the exact same circumstances being the same time of day, same food consumption, same hydration, same time of the date, same un-trained status, same medications and/or supplements and also the same week in the menstrual cycle (if you are female)
Depending on the time frame between scans and the results you were looking to achieve, ensure that you have followed/checked the following steps –
Essentially though, if results are not as expected, changes need to be made to either your training or nutrition protocols. The beauty of being able to scan on the Evolt 360 is the ease at which you can assess feedback on whether your nutrition and training is right for the goal you are trying to achieve.
Yes, the Evolt 360 will track changes for a Physique contest whether it be for a bikini athlete or body builder.
Physique sports such as body building are judged purely in a physical appearanceso genetics and muscularity become an important aspect. In terms of body fat, physique athletes are not judged on a body fat percentage measure so determining body fat for the stage is impossible to ascertain given that some people can look visibly leaner whilst carrying a higher body fat percentage.
From an individual perspective, the physique athlete should use the Evolt 360 to track their progression throughout the contest prep then use those metrics to gauge their progression in future contest preps.
If there is a significant change during the contest prep such as the addition of supplementation or anything that significantly affects hydration, be aware that there may be some inconsistencies in readings. To ensure consistency and reliability in progressive readings, consistency around conditions must be maintained.
Visible leanness does not always reflect an individual’s total body fat content. In other words, some individuals can look leaner than they actually are. Thismay be influenced by a number of reasons, including individual body fat distribution characteristics; however, one reason could be due to the fact that the high body fat is made up of significantly high visceral fat mass which is the fat that surrounds internal organs.
Visceral fat cannot be determined visually,therefore it is not uncommon for some people can look leaner than they perceive themselves to be when they look in the mirror.
As previously mentioned, it is important to assess consistency in readings and under the following conditions –
Despite body fat reading higher than expected by the individual, the validity and reliability of the Evolt 360 will provide consistency in progressive readings.
Body composition metrics will fluctuate throughout the day in response to changes in blood volume, hydration, timing and type of food and fluid intake, hormonal changes, digestion rate and gut contents, activities of daily living, exercise, the environmentand body temperature. Changes in body weight and body composition throughout the day is subject to variation and It Is for this reason that having your scans in a standardized format is highly recommended for consistency of results. Scanning in the morning will be expected to produce a result that is likely to vary from scanning in the afternoon or night due to day to day variation in individual lifestyle considerations as listed above.
Visceral fat levels do not correlate directly with the amount of subcutaneous fat in the body or activity levels such as high endurance capacity. Visceral fat may be influenced by genetics, hormonal levels, lifestyle and nutritional intake. Visceral fat also contains a high concentration of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) which provides a site for stress hormones such as cortisol to bind with and contribute to an increased accumulation of adipose tissue around the internal organs of the body. Total body fat results may also be influenced by fat contained within organs such as the liver, heart and pancreas, known as Ectopic fat, that is also independent of lean body mass and general fitness levels.
Total body fat levels may be attributed to a number of different variables, such as, including lifestyle, nutritional status and individual fat deposit variability, hormonal influences, such as high cortisol levels associated with high training volume, poor sleep and ,work stress, all of which may influence a higher visceral fat due to an increase in cortisol or insulin resistance. Due to the location of visceral fat in the human body, an individual cannot estimate or predict their visceral fat levels, unless they have scanned using BIA technology or performed a DEXA scan.
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis has been used in medicine for many years and iscompletely safe to use as it does not use any form of radiation.
The EVOLT 360 is a body composition analyser. It provides a quick, non invasive, easy measurement of your body composition delivering a guideline of your lean body mass, body fat mass & percentage, skeletal muscle mass, visceral fat level, fitness age, fitness score plus much more.
We do not recommend the use of BIA technology for individuals who may be pregnant or have an implant device such as a cardiac pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator.
Bone Mineral Content refers to the calculation of the weight of the bone mineral which can be established via BIA readings. Bone Mineral Density refers to the density of the bone which can establish diagnosis of conditions such as Osteoporosis, treatments relating to osteoporosis or risk of fracture injuries. Bone Mineral Density tests are performed by a qualified radiographer using a DEXA scan.
Whilst it is important to always scan under the exact same conditions for consistency and repeatability, there are a number of medications that can alter a scan result where the medications significantly change hydration status, blood volume andbody temperature changes. The most notable being –
BIA provides an analysis of the human body at the time the scan is performed, reflecting the body composition of the individual at that time. As with any form of body composition analysis, including all forms of BIA, Bod Pod and DEXA, medications, including steroid based medications, will influence the results due to the role of those substances in the body, particularly with respect to intracellular and extracellular water and nitrogen retention within lean muscle tissue. As previously mentioned, steroid medications and other mediations that alter hydration status such as creatine, beta 3 agonists, peptides etc. will influence the result where it relates to Lean Body Mass, in particular, Total Body Water.
It is important to always scan under the same conditions each time with the same variables to ensure consistency and repeatability of results.
Consuming food will show a minor change in your scan result. It is always best practice to scan on an empty stomach, however, you can still scan after eating a meal, so long as you re-scan under the exact same conditions each time you scan.
High levels of total body fat can have substantial impact obesity related diseases such as –
High visceral fatis associated with an increased risk and incidence of obesity related diseases include type 2diabetes, insulin resistance and inflammatory conditions due to an increase in pro-inflammatory mediators within the body leading to adverse health outcomes and higher mortality. Visceral fat Visceral fat is generally recommended to account for approximately 10-20% total fat in men and 5-8% in women.
Scientific validation of BIA technology has substantiated the use of specific algorithms that consider age and gender to improve the accuracy of body composition measurement. The Evolt360 differs from other BIA products on the market by incorporating five (5) specific personalised variables, namely height, weight, gender, age and impedance to provide accurate body composition measurement for the individual that are incorporated into an algorithm-based result. Meleleoet al (2017)
The Evolt360 does not provide clients with a ‘one size fits all’ generic measurement by using pre-set algorithms that do not account for unique and personalised characteristics of you as an individual.
Pre-set algorithms make assumptions about the individual and do not allow for the vast array of changes that take place within an individual throughout the day or across the lifespan. For example, the musculoskeletal structure of a 60yr old male is considerably different to that of an 18yr old male and as such the use of specific and validated algorithms are required to maintain the accuracy of the measurement.
Based on the most up to date scientific information relating to the BIA analysis, the use of algorithm-based measurement is key to maintaining the accuracy of measurement for each individual.
BIA is a form of indirect body composition measurement (Aragon, et al 2017). All forms of BIA incorporate scan methodology that involves the passing of a safe electrical current through the body at an alternating frequency to differentiate body fat, muscle and other soft tissue and as such, forms an indirect form of analysis. DEXA, air displacement plethysmography (BodPod), Skinfolds and BIA all comprise indirect forms of body composition analysis. The only forms of direct body composition analysis are total body water volume measured using an isotope dilution, total body counting using radioactive potassium 40, neutron activation, and post mortem cadaver analysis (Duren et al 2008).
It is important to maintain consistency around scanning throughout the Menstrual Cycle as there are significant fluid changes around hormonal shifts. As you can see in the diagram, during the luteal phase, progesterone rises which has a natural diuretic effect. Whereas, in the follicular phase, estrogen rises which can increase fluid retention significantly. The recommendation is to always scan in the same phase of the menstrual cycle ie. in the follicular or luteal Phase, within the same few days.
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT), deposited in the intra-abdominal cavity and surrounding the internal organs, is associated with a variety of metabolic risk factors, is a predictor of premature mortality and is causally implicated in the development of disease through a variety of different mechanisms. BIA assumes the human body as a series of 5 cylinders comprising each of the upper and lower limbs and the torso. By independently measuring each cylinder, the BIA has the ability to determine the regional distribution, including visceral fat levels in the body.
While BIA scanning can safely be undertaken during pregnancy, we recommend women do not scan during pregnancy simply because a woman will experience a large amount of change in body composition over the course of the 40 week pregnancy, simply by nature of the baby’s development over that period. Maternal weight gain in pregnancy is widely considered necessary for an adequate foetal development and development rates of the baby will vary considerably over each trimester of the pregnancy and the increase of maternal weight will depend on changes of various anatomical feto-maternal structures (foetus, uterus, amniotic fluid, amniotic membranes, placenta), maternal body fat and breast tissue as well as total body water (TBW). TBW increases during pregnancy by about 5–8 litres and the composition of lean tissue changes as pregnancy progresses, thereby compromising the ability to obtain an accurate estimate of pregravidweight status and/or body composition immediately before or early in pregnancy and affecting the validity of body composition change estimates. Accordingly we recommend women refrain from BIA scans during pregnancy.
Metal implants will demonstrate high conductance and low impedance of the alternating electrical current that Is used with BIA scanningin a similar manner to tissue that has a high water content such as skeletal muscle. Accordingly, metal implants will impact the scan result and will likely indicate that a person has a higher level of lean body mass that will be representative a lower overall body fat percentage.
BIA will Interpret silicone and saline Implants as fat whereas a DEXA scan will interpret breast or buttock implants as bone, which is why direct comparison between different types of scans is inconsistent and can be misleading.
Variation In scan results at different times of the day will almost certainly occur due to changes In hydration status, stomach and GI tract contents, blood volume shifts and variation In hormone levels which Is a normal aspect of bodily function. To avoid variation In scan results, we recommend scanning at the same time and day of the week for follow up scans.
A small amount of variation, even with back to back scans, Is common with all forms of Indirect body composition analysis, Including BIA, DEXA, Bod Pod and skinfolds etc. In the event that a small amount of change In result exists, we recommend as a starting point that you ensure the contact points (feet and hands) of the BIA are positioned correctly, as this Is a common source of scan variation.
The contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract can Influence the result of the BIA scan so It Is recommended that for the most accurate and reliable results, the scan be undertaken with an empty stomach. It Is not a compulsory requirement of the BIA scan to fast for an extended duration prior to the scan, rather, we recommend you participate In any follow up scans with as close to the conditions as your original scan as possible.
Bio-electrical Impedance Analysis or Bio impedance Analysis (BIA) works by passing a safe, low intensity electrical current through the body via the tactile points on the machine (feet and hands). The response of biological tissues to an alternating electrical signal applied produces a bioelectrical impedance which is a function of tissue composition as well as the frequency of the applied electrical signal. Impedance varies with tissue structure, tissue composition, tissue health, and signal frequency.The resistance to flow of the alternating current determines the difference between muscle mass, fat mass (including visceral and subcutaneous), water and mineral.
The scan process is easy and takes less than 2 minutes.
You do not need to remove any clothing unless it is heavy or bulky. Shoes and socks must be removed and feet and hands must be disinfected before a scan. Please ensure all items are removed from your pockets. (I.e. Phones, keys, coins etc.)
Once you have completed the scan process you will receive an email. Click on the link and sign into Evolt Active. Your result will be displayed on the “Scan Stats” on your “Profile”.
Place feet correctly, hold handles firm, completing covering palm and placing thumb on the button. Keep your arms off your body and keep still and do not move or speak during your Evolt 360 scan.
The frequency of measurement is fully dependent on each individual or program. Generally, people like to scan every 4-6 weeks to accurately track and monitor their progress to ensure their diet is correct for their training regime. Not only that, it’s super motivating to see your results change!
A full scan explanation can be found on the back of your scan result sheet or login to Evolt Active to view your result online.
Evolt Active is the smart, progressive way to track your body composition progress. View immediate insights about your body and receive instant feedback to see how your exercise and nutritional choices affect your goals. The app stores unlimited body scans in ‘easy to read’ progress graphs and charts. The app has an intuitive calorie and macronutrient calculator based on your body composition and individual goals. Evolt Active is your personal GPS guide to your body composition goals. Visit Evolt Active www.evoltactive.com to find out more.
Track your progress via the “Scan Stats” tab you can access via your “Profile”. View a summary of your progress and also your results graphed in date order.
Micronutrients are minerals and vitamins and do not contribute towards your daily energy (Caloric) intake.
These function for general health purposes such as immune boosting, regular blood analyses, and cognitive functioning.
A balanced, healthy diet rich in a variety of vegetables (4-5 daily cups) will usually provide optimal micronutrient delivery. In certain cases individuals may be lacking in a specific micronutrient, such as iron or calcium, and therefore may require supplementation.
Macronutrients are energy-providing chemical substances consumed by organisms in large quantities. The three macronutrients in nutrition are carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Everybody has an individual macronutrient profile depending on their body composition.
To view your Macro’s you must download the App and sign up before getting the Evolt 360 Scan. Using your details, log into the Evolt 360 kiosk and complete a scan. The result will automatically fire to your Evolt Active. Head to the “Profile” section and view your individualized macro profile under the “My Macro’s tab”
Firstly, within healthy guidelines we are trying to achieve a physique goal that is perhaps beyond what has been achieved before for yourself and so in order to do this the importance of the protein macronutrient is enhanced.
Protein is the macronutrient that functions to service muscle tone, shape, recovery and strength. Provided we are exercising, the body is well equipped to deliver protein to our muscles for these needs as well as for storage.
Whist Protein may have the same caloric value as Carbohydrates, it is regarded as a leaner food group because of its efficient function for muscles, therefore being stored in muscles rather than in and around organs as potential fat cells.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is one’s resting ability to burn calories (or energy). It is calculated by means of how much energy is used up to undertake basic survival requirements, such as breathing, digesting, blood circulation, cognition, body temperature regulation and general maintenance of bodily equilibrium parameters.
Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) will always be a higher number as it factors in physical activity. Dependent on the type, duration, intensity and frequency of the exercise or physical activity; the body is required to burn or utilise greater energy stores
If you have a fitness goal in mind, tracking your nutrition is essential to help reach your goals. Counting calories can leave you feeling starved or lethargic, whereas if you are eating the correct nutritious food for your body you will feel great! Tracking your macros also gives flexibility and more variety within your diet – never get bored again!
Disclaimer: The EVOLT technology used to determine Body Composition is not a diagnostic tool and does not replace the educated judgment of a healthcare professional. Body composition test results are for reference purposes only and are not intended to substitute advice given by a physician, pharmacist, or other licensed health-care professional. You should not use this information as self-diagnosis or for treating a health problem or disease. Contact your health-care provider immediately if you suspect that you have a medical problem.